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Increased body fat mass is associated with increased blood insulin levels

05.2021
Author Prof. J. Spranger, University Department of Pediatrics Mainz

A bioelectrical impedance analysis is used to measure body fat, body water, muscle mass and other body compartments. Because of the known correlation between obesity and type 2 diabetes, this method was used to determine the relative body fat content of 1383 healthy adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and put it into context with their morning insulin levels [1]. A highly significant correlation was found between these values: the more fat, the more insulin. There was a similarly high correlation between fat content, fasting blood sugar levels, blood pressure and abdominal circumference. It should be pointed out that the latter can reliably replace the more sophisticated bioelectrical impedance analysis [2]. 

Comment: Hyperinsulinism, elevated fasting blood sugar levels and elevated blood pressure are elements of the metabolic syndrome which carries an increased cardiovascular risk and is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Assessing the urine C-peptide creatinine ratio is recommended to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus from type 2. In type 2 cases it is significantly elevated and in type 1 cases it is decreased [3]. 

References: 
[1] Gamboa-Gomez CI, Guerrero-Romero F, Aradillas-Garcia C, et al. The total body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance is associated with hyperinsulinaemia in apparently healthy adolescents. Acta paediat 2020; 1893-1894.
[2] s. Hipp Lit. Serv. 1/2010.
[3] Elzahar W, Arafa A, Youssef A et al. Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio to differentiate type 2 diabetes mellitus from type 1 in pediatric patients. Eur J Pediatr 2020; 179: 1115–1120.